Battle and War

  

Tod als Panzerfahrer, Karl Reisenbichler (1885 – 1962), um 1918, Kohle auf Papier, Salzburg Museum, , Inv.-Nr. 1197-87
Tod als Panzerfahrer, Karl Reisenbichler (1885 – 1962), um 1918, Kohle auf Papier, Salzburg Museum, , Inv.-Nr. 1197-87Klicken um Bild zu vergrößern
Salzburger Infanterie mit Gasmasken und Nahkampfwaffen, wohl Stützpunkt Torkarl/Kärnten 1917, Hans Oellacher Dr. (1889 – 1949), 1917, Glasdiapositiv, Salzburg Museum, , Inv.-Nr. F 22273
Salzburger Infanterie mit Gasmasken und Nahkampfwaffen, wohl Stützpunkt Torkarl/Kärnten 1917, Hans Oellacher Dr. (1889 – 1949), 1917, Glasdiapositiv, Salzburg Museum, , Inv.-Nr. F 22273Klicken um Bild zu vergrößern
UNBEKANNT, Gruppenfoto: Soldaten mit Maschinengewehren in Italien 1916,Papier, Fotoabzug SW, Salzburg, Privatbesitz
UNBEKANNT, Gruppenfoto: Soldaten mit Maschinengewehren in Italien 1916,Papier, Fotoabzug SW, Salzburg, PrivatbesitzKlicken um Bild zu vergrößern
Gasmaske mit Behälter, 1915 - 1918, SWGR, Salzburg
Gasmaske mit Behälter, 1915 - 1918, SWGR, SalzburgKlicken um Bild zu vergrößern
Alfred Kubin: Hyäne auf Schlachtfeld (aus: Zeit-Echo. Ein Kriegs-Tagebuch der Künstler), 1915 - 1916, Galerie Altnöder, Salzburg
Alfred Kubin: Hyäne auf Schlachtfeld (aus: Zeit-Echo. Ein Kriegs-Tagebuch der Künstler), 1915 - 1916, Galerie Altnöder, SalzburgKlicken um Bild zu vergrößern

The war is more and more becoming a machine …
The Salzburg soldier Josef R. Werner thus described the use of new military technologies, which caused mass killings on a hitherto unimaginable scale. A few weeks after the outbreak of the war, the offensive war developed into trench warfare. Each offensive brought huge losses. As protection against machine-gun fire and shrapnel, imperial-royal soldiers began to wear steel helmets from 1916 on. They were, however, of no use against flamethrowers. In 1915, German troops had introduced the use of poison gas, which eventually became widespread. Meanwhile, in November 1917, British tanks broke through hitherto impregnable positions at the West Front and in Italy.

  
Joint Supreme Command
Since winter 1914/1915, the weakened imperial-royal army had not been able to conduct offensives without German assistance; from 1916 on, a Joint Supreme Command existed under the command of the German Emperor for the front regions where imperial-royal troops were also deployed.

 
Image
Staged Scenarios and Real Destruction
Official photographed images of the imperial-royal army had been strictly censored since 1914. Photographers of the imperial-royal war press bureau following the troops were mostly allowed to take photographs in the back-up area only. Scenes of combat were frequently staged, or recorded during military exercises. The dead were seen only in exceptional cases, a disturbing fact in view of the 15 million military and civilian people who died. The First World War permanently changed the landscape; many settled and unpopulated regions had been destroyed on a large scale by the end of the war.

   
Private Photos by Soldiers
Besides the official illustrated coverage of the war, soldiers took countless private photos in the years 1914 to 1918. They used innovative small cameras and light film rolls, while the professional photographers had to grapple with heavy glass plates.

  
The World War
Europe, Asia, Africa, North and South America and Australia were involved in the global war.
The Great Powers – Great Britain, France, Germany, Japan, Russia and the Ottoman Empire – fought for territories in Africa and Asia such as Togo, Cameroon, German Southwest Africa, German East Africa, German Samoa, German New Guinea, Tsingtao (territory in China controlled by the Germans), and also regions of the Middle and Near East, including Afghanistan and Palestine. The latter belonged to the Ottoman Empire and was supported by the allied German and Austrian-Hungarian troops. But the most poignantly familiar pictures of the First World War are still those from the Western Front. These images have been impressed upon the minds of generations.

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